Types- On the Basis of Cells

There are four different types of Mesothelioma cancer, depending on the tumor location. It may occur in the form of the lining of the lungs (pleural), abdomen (peritoneal), heart (pericardial) or testicles (testicular). Furthermore, the categorization of cancer based on cell type, which includes- epithelioid, sarcomatoid and biphasic. Cases of Pleural Mesothelioma is 80%, pericardial- 1%, Peritoneal- 15% and Testicular 1%.

Pleural Mesothelioma

Pleural Mesothelioma occurs in the inner lining of the lungs. This type of cancer is the most common form of aggressive disease. This cancer diagnoses more than 80% of people. There are different symptoms of this type of cancer-

  • Chest pain
  • Coughing
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath

These symptoms may be inaccurate with other diseases, including lung cancer. On average patients may not survive more than 6-12 months post-diagnosis. The primary cause of pleural Mesothelioma is increasing exposure to asbestos fiber. This usually takes from 20 to 50 years for this cancer cell to develop after the first exposure to Asbestos.

A person facing this type of cancer will have the life expectancy of fewer than 18 months. However, it will depend on different factors too.

More than 25 per cent of patients carrying symptoms like Dyspnea and chest pain for six months should get themselves examined by the doctor. Another reason behind the Pleural Mesothelioma is the Pleural thickening. It further causes a loss of elasticity in the lungs. This thickening is also caused due to tuberculosis, pleurisy, and empyema.

There are different stages of Pleural Mesothelioma symptoms. This includes difficulty breathing, chest pains, and coughing. During this symptom stage, the doctor would help in reducing the chest pain and makes breathing easy.

Pleural Mesothelioma Causes

One of the reasons behind the cause of this cancer is the Asbestos. Patients when inhaling minerals needle-like fiber that tend to lodge in the lungs, gradually migrating into the pleural lining. After a certain period of exposure, this fiber starts causing irritation, chronic inflammation and genetic changes.

Peritoneal Mesothelioma

This type of cancer is the most common type and is diagnosed in 20% of the mesothelioma cases. Peritoneal Mesothelioma cancer affects the lining of the abdominal area. The primary cause of this cancer is by ingesting asbestos fiber. Individual who faces this cancer has the life expectancy of one year without undergoing surgery.

Every year, there are around 600 cases in the US. Individual facing this cancer will face some symptoms. Some of the symptoms of this type of cancer include- abdominal distension, abdominal pain, swelling or tenderness around the abdomen and constipation or diarrhea. Doctors can confirm this diagnosis only through Biopsy.

Types- On the Basis of Cells

Mesothelioma is categorized by the type of cells found from the tissue samples extracted from the body. These types are- malignant (cancerous) or benign. The Malignant tumor often grows further limiting to a viable treatment option. Patients facing this problem have a life expectancy of a maximum of 21 months post-diagnosis.

Benign Mesothelioma is a non-cancerous form of the disease. This tumor carries a low rate of recurrence and is curable with the surgery. This type of cancer cell is typically localized and is slow growing and is non-invasive.

Types of Benign Mesothelioma

There are different types of benign Mesothelioma, further differentiated by cell characteristics. The best part of benign tumors they are simple to treat.

  • Benign Multicystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma (BMPM) – This type of tumor occurs in the peritoneal cavity. Moreover, it occurs in young and middle-aged women. There are few cases of this tumor occurring in men and children.
  • Well-Differentiated Papillary Mesothelioma (WDPM) – The majority of cases occur in the peritoneum (abdominal cavity) of women 30 to 40 years of age. Some of the symptoms include pain and effusions.
  • Localized Fibrous Tumor – This tumor affects the surface of the mesothelial cells in the pleura. However, it can also occur in pericardium, tunica and peritoneum.

Malignant Mesothelioma

Malignant Mesothelioma is the type of mesothelioma cancer that starts in the form of cells in the linings of a specific part of the body. In this type of tumor, the layer of specialized cells called Mesothelial cells lines inside the chest, abdomen and around the heart. In many cases, these cells cover the outer surface of most of the internal organs. These lining cells is called as Mesothelium. These cells help to protect organs in the form of special lubricant fluid, allowing organs to slide with each other.

Types of Malignant Mesothelioma

Malignant mesothelioma tumor can grow in any the lining. The cancer tumor often shortened to just Mesothelioma. There are four different types of mesotheliomas-

  1. Pleural mesotheliomas start in the chest. More than 3 out of 4 mesotheliomas are pleural mesotheliomas.
  2. Peritoneal mesotheliomas start in the abdomen.
  3. Pericardial mesotheliomas start by covering around the heart, and the case is very rare.
  4. Mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis is rare tumors that start in the covering layer of the testicles.
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