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Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma

In a few cases, a patient’s physician might detect this disease accidentally when he undergoes a blood test for a particular condition. Again, the physician might also detect multiple myeloma grounded on a person’s symptoms.

The procedures and tests that help diagnose multiple myeloma are the following:

Urine tests

The analysis of a person’s urine might show M proteins, and they are known as Bence Jones proteins. There are many cases where multiple myeloma causes organ damage. By undergoing the urinalysis, the doctor will know if your kidneys work together. Moreover, the test also presents how much protein level is there in your body.

Urine Protein Electrophoresis (UPEP)

For this test, the doctor would collect your urine over 24 hours. If the doctor finds M Protein in the urine, then it is undoubtedly the sign of Multiple Myeloma.

Blood tests

The laboratory analysis of a person’s blood might disclose the M proteins formed by myeloma cells. Another unusual protein created by myeloma cells is known as beta-2-microglobulin. This might be detected from a person’s blood and provides clues to doctors about the severity of myeloma.
In addition, blood tests for testing kidney functioning, uric acid levels and calcium levels can provide the physician with evidence regarding the diagnosis process of multiple myeloma.

Testing of a person’s bone marrow

The physician might take a person’s bone marrow sample for laboratory testing, and this sample is collected with the help of a long needle that is inserted into the bone.
In the laboratory, the sample is inspected for myeloma cells. Specialized tests, like FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization), are capable of analyzing myeloma cells for understanding their genetic irregularities.
Again, tests conducted for measuring the rate in which myeloma cells have been dividing.

Imaging tests

These tests might is for detecting bone problems related to multiple myeloma, and tests might comprise an X-ray, CT, MRI, or PET (positron emission tomography).
Biopsy is the most common test to diagnose this cancer. Under this test, the doctor will extract a piece of tissue from the body and check it in the lab.
Some of the different types of Biopsies conducted to diagnose multiple myeloma are-

  • Bone Marrow Biopsy– Under this, the doctor will numb the area of hipbone and extract the splinter of bone marrow tissue. The doctor would then check the shape of the cell and determine if myeloma cells are present.
  • Bone Marrow Aspiration– In this, the doctor will extract the sample of liquid bone marrow from the rare hipbone.
  • Core Needle Biopsy– The doctor in this uses needle to remove the piece of tissue from lymph node.
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