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Types of Multiple Myeloma

According to the National Cancer Institute, a kind of Multiple Myeloma is related to the plasma cell of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance. In this type of cancer, doctors would find a low level of M Protein, and the affected person carries no symptoms.

This cancer disease is divided into different types, and the two main sub-types are-

  • Hyperdiploid (HMM) – In this, Myeloma cells carry more chromosomes than the normal one. This type accounts for 45% of multiple myeloma cases and is not much aggressive.
  • Non-Hyperdiploid– These cells carry fewer chromosomes than usual. However, it is more aggressive, and more than 40% of people face this disease.

Let us check 9 types of Multiple Myeloma-

  1. Light Chain Myeloma-

    Patients facing Myeloma produce antibodies known as Immunoglobulins. In many cases, the patient’s body ends up producing incomplete immunoglobulin known as a light chain antibody.
    However, only 20% of people facing Myeloma have a light chain. Proteins that are produced stored in Kidneys, further damaging them. Also known as light chain amyloidosis, it builds up in tissues as an abnormal protein known as Amyloid. The building up of Amyloid in specific organs can affect the tissue works.
    For instance, when Amyloid builds up in the heart area, it causes irregular heartbeat. Further leading to weakening of the heart. Similarly, Amyloid attacks kidney affecting the overall functioning of the organ

  2. Non- Secretory Myeloma-

    People who face multiple Myeloma are unable to produce enough M Proteins for testing purposes. These patients face non-secretory Myeloma.
    Doctors usually prefer a bone marrow biopsy to detect this type of disease.

  3. Solitary Plasmacytoma-

    When healthy plasma cells turn cancerous, they end up creating a tumor called Plasmacytoma in bone or tissue. If the patient has any of these signs, then it called Solitary Plasmacytoma. In such cases, the doctor usually asks for a PET-CT scan or MRI to confirm the diagnosis.
    PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography, uses radiation to make 3-dimensional images. MRI, on the other hand, uses powerful magnets and radio waves to produce detailed images.
    The Solitary Plasmacytomas usually develops in the bone. The initial stage of the development in other tissues is called Solitary extramedullary or extraosseous Plasmacytoma. People who face this issue undergo radiation therapy. In many cases, people who develop Solitary Plasmacytoma will face multiple Myeloma.

  4. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma-

    This type of tumor starts outside the area of bone marrow. In many cases, this type of cancer happens in the throat, sinuses, nose, and larynx.
    More than 30% of people face this cancer and have Multiple Myeloma. Patients suffering from this issue prefer treatment, including radiation therapy or surgery.

  5. Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia-

    This cancer cell that attacks the body of the person is similar to multiple Myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. WM cells make a large number of antibodies known as Macroglobulin. Each antibody produced by the WM cells called monoclonal protein. Post buildup of M Protein can lead to symptoms of WM, including problems in vision and issues in the nervous system.

  6. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance-

    This disorder happens when plasma cells end up, making many copies of similar antibodies. This monoclonal Gammopathy can be found on a routine blood test. People who face multiple Myeloma carry monoclonal Gammopathy.
    However, it can also occur during other diseases like Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and lymphomas. This condition leads to active Myeloma and involves M Proteins, which are abnormal antibodies. People with this condition live for around 20 yrs. In rare cases, one will get active Myeloma.
    Doctors usually do not prefer treating the patient unless they have side effects, including pain and numbness in the hands. The patient will undergo the lab test every 3-6 months to check if there is an increase in M Proteins, causing organ damage.

  7. Smoldering Multiple Myeloma-

    The Smoldering Multiple Myeloma is a precancerous form, and there are no symptoms of it. People facing this type of Multiple Myeloma cancer carry more M proteins in the blood. Also, they carry more myeloma plasma cells in the bone marrow. This results in active Myeloma.50% of people with this problem diagnosed with Myeloma after five years. Patients under this problem may undergo imaging tests to check the condition of bones. The test of bones can be of MRI, combined with PET-CT scan.  People with smoldering Myeloma will show some signs of multiple Myeloma including-

    – Massive amount of plasma cells in bone marrow
    – High level of monoclonal immunoglobulin flowing in the blood
    – People who face smoldering multiple Myeloma does not need that treatment in the initial stage itself. Some may face the slow progress of this Myeloma.

  8.   Immunoglobulin D Myeloma

    This is the rare type of Multiple Myeloma, which affects only 1% to 2% of people with Myeloma. Men who are under 60 yrs. of age usually fall under this problem. People may face the same signs and symptoms as other types.

  9. Immunoglobin E Myeloma

    IgE is also a rare type of Multiple Myeloma, causing the same signs and symptoms as other types. However, it is quite aggressive and inches towards the plasma cell leukemia, further spreading outside the bone marrow.

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